21 December 2012, Kraków, Poland

Ockham's Razor The simplest answer is the most probable.

Przemysław Gruchała's Ultimate Theory

Introduction

It's the simplest and shortest possible theory that you will ever read.

And quite shocking for somebody used to Standard Model and XX century Quantum Physics.

But math equations explain what is happening while decay beta-, beta+, electron capture or nuclear transmutation.

The simplest math with just adding and subtracting integer values is enough for Ultimate Theory. There can be no fractions at truly lowest level of Universe.

If scientists will keep going route: split Atom, then try to split Proton, then try to split Up/Down Quark etc. we might never find the answer what are true elementary undestroyable particles.

I wanted to save us time, and I tried to answer the question:

What is the minimum number of elementary particles required to construct everything in the Universe.. ?

And came up with conclusion that there are needed just two true elementary particles.

Equations and formulas showed here, for the moment, are just examples of unification model at small, actually the smallest level, to show idea. Currently it's not possible to detect what is exact frequency of each particle with perfect precision 1 Hz, which is needed for mine model of unification (because it's using integer numbers).

Elementary particles

  1. Negative particle.

    It has Mass 1 absolute unit.
    It has Electric Charge -1 absolute unit.
    It's approximately -5.3406*10^-20 C in SI units.
    Don't confuse with Electron!

  2. Positive particle.

    It has Mass 1 absolute unit.
    It has Electric Charge +1 absolute unit.
    It's approximately +5.3406*10^-20 C in SI units.
    Don't confuse with Positron!

Two particles of the same kind are pushing away.

Two opposite particles are attracting.

Currently I am predicting that mass of each elementary particle is approximately 3.68625*10^-51 kg in SI units. It's discussed in other article about Quantum Of Mass.

Composite Particle Formula

P T
N

Subtract N from T to calculate number of Positive particles.

Composite Anti Particle Formula

To create anti particle swap Positive and Negative elementary particles.

P T
T-N

Particle with equal number of Positive and Negative elementary particles is its own anti particle. The only difference between them is spin.

Mass remain the same, but Electric Charge is reversed.

Electric Charge

To calculate Electric Charge of composite particle subtract number of Negative particles from number of Positive particles.

If you want to convert it to Standard Model, divide by 3.

Composite Particle Stability Rule

Stability Rule is not yet finalized. There is couple variations that need verification. The basic concept is utilizing Prime Numbers to check whether composite particle is stable or not.

The Prime Number rule:
P and N must be Prime Number.
and/or
T and P must be Prime Number.
and/or
T and N must be Prime Number.
to create stable composite particle.

Number 1 is also included to Prime Numbers, because Negative and Positive wants to join together. Otherwise f.e. Photon 2/1 and Electron 5/4 we would have to consider unstable. But with Universe full of particles they find opposite particle instantly. Photon after hitting surface and splitting can immediately find opposite Positive/Negative from the same light source therefor Electric Charge is same.

If composite particle is not obeying rule it is not stable and decay to the closest lighter particle by emitting Electron P 5/4, Neutrino P 4/2 or other particles to satisfy rule.

Composite particle decay until there are only stable particles.

Total number of elementary particles is the same on both sides of equation. In legacy Classic Physics it's simply called conservation of energy.

Electric Charge must match on both sides of equation.

If we are colliding particles in accelerator we need to take into account eventually particles from environment. Vacuum is not empty. It's full of Photons, Neutrinos and other stable composite particles with mass less than Proton. There is no virtual particles.

Composite particle must contains at least 1 Positive and 1 Negative particle. That's the most common composite particle in the Universe. It's Photon.

Composite particle containing just one type of elementary particle would simply push them away not join together.

Complex Composite Particle

Take the lowest level composite particle f.e. Quark P 3/1 with Electric Charge +1. Then add any number of Photons 2/1 to it. And you have compatible in Electric Charge particle, but hundred, thousands or billion times more massive.

Boson W-, Boson W+ and Boson Higgs are all base particle + x * Photons 2/1, so original Electric Charge of the lowest level composite particle is the same. x is not constant.

There is infinite number of Proton, Neutron, Electron-compatible particles. Visit Table Of Particles to see the first 100 initial composite particles.

Table of particles

Particle Name N
Negative
P
Positive
T
Total
Absolute Mass Electric Charge Standard Model
Equivalent
Standard Model
Electric Charge
Equivalent
Formula Comment
Elementary Particles
Negative 1 0 1 1 -1  
-
1
3
  It's the only thing existing in the Universe.
Matter and energy is the same thing.
Positive 0 1 1 1 +1  
+
1
3
 
Composite Particles
Illegal 2 0 2           Two or more of the same kind particles will be pushing away, not joining to stable composite particle.
Illegal 0 2 2          
Photon 1 1 2 2 0 Photon 0
P 2
1

Electric neutral composite particle.
Made of Positive and Negative particle.
Opposite Electric Charge is keeping them together attracting each other.
While movement they look like helix or sinusoid and reversed helix or reversed sinusoid.
It can be not stable particle, but it's very quickly finding particle to attach.

Neutrino
Anti Neutrino
2 2 4 4 0 Neutrino
Anti Neutrino
0
P 4
2
Electric neutral composite particle.
Made of 2 Positive and 2 Negative particles.
Opposite signs of Electric Charge is keeping them together.
Electron 4 1 5 5 -3 Electron -1
P 5
4
If Electron will collide with Positron they decay to 5 Photons P 2/1.
I am predicting they look like tree with growing branches in the all directions. Exactly the same like microscale thunderbolt. The more elementary particles, the closer look to bolt. Four Negative (or four Positive) particles are pushing away to be farthest as possible from each other. But positive particle is keeping them together.
Positron 1 4 5 5 +3 Positron +1
P 5
1
Standard Model Legacy

Up Quark 3 5 8 8 +2 Up Quark
+
2
3
P 8
3

General

P N+N+2
N
 

Anti Up Quark 5 3 8 8 -2 Anti Up Quark
-
2
3
P 8
5

General

P N+N-2
N
 


Down Quark 9 8 17 17 -1 Down Quark
-
1
3
P 17
9

General

P N+N-1
N
Not stable part of Proton and Neutron.
Made of Up Quark, Electron and any needed Positive-Negative pairs.
Composite particle which is using Down Quark can have as many Positive and Negative pairs of particles as it needs to obey Stability Rule and have the same Electric Charge.


Anti Down Quark 8 9 17 17 +1 Anti Down Quark
+
1
3
P 17
8

General

P N+N+1
N
Not stable part of Anti Proton and Anti Neutron.
Made of Anti Up Quark, Positron and any needed Positive-Negative pairs.
Composite particle which is using Anti Down Quark can have as many Positive and Negative pairs of particles as it needs to obey Stability Rule and have the same Electric Charge.

Proton Family

Proton must have:
2 Up Quarks and 1 Down Quark.

After splitting Down Quark it will have:
3 Up Quarks with Electric Charge +2 * 3 = +6
1 Electron with Electric Charge -3
1 Anti Neutrino with Electric Charge 0

The simplest composite particle obeying this rule and being stable is:

P 4
1
+
P 4
1
+
P 4
1
+
P 5
4
+
P 4
2
+
P 10
5
=
Proton P 31
14

General Formula

P 5
1
+
P N+N
N
=
Proton P M+M+3
M

That might be shocking to you if you know current Quantum Physics, but there doesn't seem to be existing just one version of Proton, Neutron and other particles. And that's the main source of problem with probability to what particle will decay. If they're uniform they should decay to the same thing. But if they're slightly different they can decay to what is appropriate for them. But current Standard Model notation won't show up why this is happening - it doesn't have enough informations about true elementary particle Positive and Negative count.

There is existing Proton P 937/467 literally:

P 8
3
+
P 8
3
+
P 8
3
+
P 5
4
+
P 4
2
+
P 904
452
=
Proton P 937
467

Ratio between Proton P 937/467 with Electron P 5/4 and Up Quark is 942 / 8 = 117.75 times bigger.

Particles made of lighter and heavier versions of Proton and Neutron might not obey decay rules. They can't produce stable Proton on output in decay beta-, and can't produce Neutron on output in decay beta+.

Neutron Family

Neutron has the same formula as Photon and Neutrino, but N > 3.

Neutron P N+N
N

Please imagine Neutron P 40/20. It does not obey Stability Rule. Therefor it is emitting Electron P 5/4. But newly made Proton P 35/16 is not obeying Stability Rule too. Therefor it's emitting Neutrino P 4/2. Proton P 31/14 is stable.

Neutron P 40
20
=>
P 5
4
+
Proton P 35
16
=>
P 4
2
+
P 31
14

or simply

Neutron P 40
20
=>
P 5
4
+
P 4
2
+
P 31
14

Please imagine Neutron P 36/18. It does not obey Stability Rule. Therefor it is emitting Electron P 5/4. Newly made Proton P 31/14 is stable. Therefor there is no need to emit any more Electrons nor Neutrinos.

Neutron P 36
18
=>
P 5
4
+
P 31
14
=>
Neutron P 36
18

Beta Decay Minus

As long as Up Quark is P 8/3 (Stable), Down Quark P 17/9 (Unstable), Electron P 5/4 and Neutrino P 4/2:

P 17
9
=
P 8
3
+
P 5
4
+
P 4
2

Instead of Neutrino P 4/2 actually there can go any number of Photons P 2/1.

P 17+X+X
9+X
=
P 8
3
+
P 5
4
+
P 4+X+X
2+X

Beta Decay Plus

This is harder. Needs solving equation:

P 8
3
+
P X
Y
=
P 17
9
+
P 5
1
+
P 4
2

Add everything on the right.

P 8
3
+
P X
Y
=
P 26
12

Subtract left from the right and we know what we need to add to original Up Quark to receive Down Quark and convert Proton to Neutron:
smaller Neutron/Neutrino P 18/9 or 9 Photons P 2/1

P X
Y
=
P 26
12
-
P 8
3
P X
Y
=
P 18
9
P X
Y
=
9*
P 2
1

Hydrogen-3 Tritium decay beta- to Helium-3

Hydrogen-3 formula (of course as long as Proton is P 31/14, Electron P 5/4 and Neutron P 40/20):

3 H
1
=
P 36
18
+
P 40
20
+
P 40
20
=
P 116
58

Helium-3 formula:

3 He
2
=
P 36
18
+
P 36
18
+
P 40
20
=
P 112
56

Hydrogen-3 changes to Helium-3 and Neutrino P 4/2:

P 116
58
=>
P 112
56
+
Neutrino P 4
2

Conclusions

In mine opinion Universe doesn't classify Atoms like humans to Protons, Neutrons etc. The only important factor is whether Stability Rule is obeyed or not. Composite particle is just cloud of elementary particles. Any atom can be described by P T/N formula. Even more, it'll be immediate information whether atom is stable or not stable. There is no border line between Proton and Neutron, or between quarks, etc. They are blending inside of Atom core seamlessly. If Stability Rule is not obeyed composite particle is cracking into lighter pieces. And if they are also not obeying rule they are cracking again. Until Stability Rule is obeyed by all pieces.